By Marcel Erdal

Outdated Turkic is the earliest, at once attested Turkic language. This unique paintings describes the grammar of previous Turkic. The language is documented in inscriptions within the 'runic' script in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin, from the 7th to the 10th century; in Uygur manuscripts from chinese language Turkestan in Uygur, and in runic and different scripts (comprising non secular – often Buddhist –, felony, literary, scientific, folkloric, astrological and private material), from the 9th to the 13th century; and in eleventh-century Qarakhanid texts, generally in Arabic writing. All features of outdated Turkic are handled: phonology, subphonemic phenomena and morphophonology, and how those are mirrored within the a variety of scripts, derivational and inflectional morphology, grammatical different types, note periods, syntax, textual and extra-textual reference and different technique of coherence, lexical fields, discourse kinds, phrasing in addition to stylistic, dialect and diachronic version.

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The Lexicon Most Uygur texts published until the 1970s were accompanied by glossaries. Brockelmann 1928 is an index to the DLT, an invaluable source for our knowledge of the Old Turkic lexicon in general. This work was useful for scholars working on Uygur and inscriptional sources, though based mostly on the faulty edition of Kilisli Rifat (1917-1919). This makes it inferior to Atalay’s glossary to his reedition, which itself is now superseded by vol. 3 of Dankoff & Kelly 1982-85. The year 1931 saw the appearance of the Analytischer Index by Bang & Gabain, which unites the (corrected) lexical material of TT I-V and of two other texts edited by the authors.

All coda vowels, on the other hand, are written out as separate characters (again unlike the Semitic and Indic systems). d) A binary distinction of non-nasal consonants at each point of articulation, whether it be called voiced vs. voiceless, strident vs. mellow or stop vs. ; most of early Indo-European has a threefold system, Sanskrit a fourfold one and Semitic as well as Caucasian languages have even more complex distinctions. Such characteristics might also be connected with other Altaic languages or with Uralic, but not a single inscription or ms.

47 In the n. to l. 1826 of her ‘Briefe der uigurischen Hüentsang-Biographie’, which appeared in 1938 (pp. , adding a short list of sources said to belong to the n dialect. She rightfully stressed that the dialects mix these characteristics (a point also made by Hazai & Zieme 1970: 132, Gabain 1974: 3-8, Schulz 1978: XIII-XVII and Laut 1986: 61), but thought that they predominate one way or the other in all texts, making classification into the two groups possible. 33. There is a contradiction in Bang & Gabain’s statement on TT I as this text is not, in fact, Manichæan.

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