By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed relevant Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic process, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all useful domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is kind of varied from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined to date in either the formal capability and the features which have been grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses relating kinds and capabilities. The grammar is written in a mode available to linguists operating inside various theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised by way of a wealthy consonantal approach, a 3 vowel approach, and a tone process. The language has ample vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord process. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles enable the parsing of the clause into parts. The language has 3 kinds of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The unfavourable paradigms of verbs vary from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and huge method of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic family members in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the thing. those arguments can stick with quite a few elements. The grammatical position of that argument is coded by way of inflectional markers at the verb and such a lot apparently, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical relatives additional to verbs are varied for various periods of verbs.

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Extra info for A Grammar of Wandala

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There is no phonetic geminate [mm]. The sequence mm, resulting from the contact of two morphemes, is reduced to [m]: (38) á-m-múrà PRED-IN-Mora ‘in Mora’ → [á múrà] The sequence of two voiced velars, gg, has been recorded only as a product of gemination deriving imperatives. hè] 1SG slip- 2SG-PNCT ‘I removed leaves for you’ Most interesting, from the phonological and phonetic point of view, is the gemination of heavy consonants, such as labial velar stops. The gemination process involves both components of the consonant.

An argument for such a possibility is provided by the possessive construction in which nouns with final phonetic [i] are followed by the genitive marker á. The product of such a sequence is the palatal glide followed by the vowel a: Underlying u 45 (48) nyárì-á-tàré → bad behavior-GEN-3PL ‘their bad behavior’ [nyáry-á-tàré] If the word nyárì had an underlying word-final i, it would have been deleted before the genitive suffix, and there would have been no trace of it as a palatal glide or in any other form.

There is a fundamental difference in Wandala between the relativization of the subject and the relativization of other grammatical relations. The relativization of the subject involves placing the nominal subject in the clause-initial position, and additional coding of the subject through the subject pronoun. The relativization of the object involves placing the nominal object in the clause-initial position and the pronominal subject before the verb and a nominal or pronominal subject after the verb.

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