By Emilio Bombardieri, John Buscombe, Giovanni Lucignani, Otmar Schober

The diagnostic and healing achievements in radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medication instrumentation ? puppy, SPECT, MR, CT and their hypbrids PET-CT and SPECT-CT

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Extra resources for Advances in Nuclear Oncology:: Diagnosis and Therapy

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33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 21 image analysis: associations with other prognostic factors and survival. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 146–9. Katzenellenbogen JA, Welch MJ, Dehdashti F. The development of estrogen and progestin radiopharmaceuticals for imaging breast cancer. Anticancer Res 1997; 17: 1573–6. Dehdashti F, Picus J, Michalski JM et al. Positron tomographic assessment of androgen receptors in prostatic carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2005; 32: 344–50. Manning G, Whyte DB, Martinez R, Hunter T, Sudarsanam S.

High-throughput anaylsis tools in genomics and proteomics help to identify new target molecules which are specifically regulated (up- and/or downregulation) in cancer. The term functional genomics refers to the systematic generation and analysis of information on what specific genes do. Moreover, the genome-wide analysis of gene expression (analysis of the transcriptome), the analysis of protein expression levels (proteomics), and their phenotypic effects are fundamental research advances which will help to discover ever new relevant targets for oncology in general, and imaging in oncological disorders specifically.

18 The αvβ3 integrin is one prominent example of an adhesion molecule that can be targeted for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Finally, enzymes degrading the extracellular matrix are an integral part of tumor angiogenesis, including matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins, or hyaluronidase. 19–23 For direct imaging of angiogenesis related molecules, various endothelial targets can be successfully visualized, including VEGF and the αvβ3 integrin (see above). 24,25 E-selectin is another potential angiogensis-related target that can be imaged by appropriate affinity ligands.

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