By Clive Alfred Spinage

In view of the speedily altering ecology of Africa ,this paintings presents benchmarks for a few of the significant, and extra ignored, points, with an accessory on ancient facts to let habitats to be visible in terms of their prior kingdom, forming a historical past reference paintings to figuring out how the ecology of Africa has been formed by way of its earlier. Reviewing ancient facts anyplace attainable it adopts an holistic view treating guy in addition to animals, with accessory on illnesses either human and animal which were a powerful strength in shaping Africa’s ecology, a task overlooked in ecological studies.

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7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 List of Figures Sketch map of extent of Budongo Forest . . . . . . . . . . . Vandeleur’s map of settlements in Murchison Falls National Park area 1894 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kidepo National Park, Uganda, showing seasonal watercourses . . . .

The same view January 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kibo from the saddle February 1928 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Similar view August 1956 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Kibo summit viewed from Moshi February 1928 . . . . . . Kibo summit viewed from Moshi January 1975 . . . . . . . The summit of Mount Kilimanjaro from Mawenzi showing extent of glaciation in September 1935 . . . . . . . . . . . . The summit of Mount Kilimanjaro August 1956 .

Lava flow in foreground with lava cones behind showing very early stages of plant colonization, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya, December 1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How elephants were encountered in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya, in 1956 .. . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. Commiphora bush in Tsavo West National Park, Kenya, September 1971, as it was formerly also in Tsavo East National Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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