By Nnamdi Anyadike
This file analyses the nation of the aluminium industry at the start of the twenty first century, taking a look at the aftermath of the MoU and at traits and advancements within the confirmed and rising industry economies contemplating the alterations and demanding situations confronted through aluminium in its center car, packaging and development end-use sectors.
- A transparent and precise research of the and its significant markets
- A survey of tendencies in mining, refining, processing, end-use and consumption
- Unique and industry forecasts
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Extra resources for Aluminium. The Challenges Ahead
New cable connections have been built and several others are in the pipeline, all seeking to exploit commercially the difference between cheaper Scandinavian hydropower and the primarily thermal-based continental European power generating systems. But for these continental producers, the new rules are likely to result in some national electricity generating capacity increasingly becoming uneconomic with the threat of closure. There is already over-capacity in the continental European electricity sector, including France (over 30%), Germany (20%) and the Netherlands (10%).
Four of the plants, the Uralsk, the Bogoslovsk, Bauxitogorsk and Pavlodar refineries, use local bauxite resources. Three further refineries, the Nikolaev, Zaprozhye and Ghyandia plants, were constructed to treat imported bauxites, while another three, the Volkhov, the Pikalevo and the Achinsk plants, use Soviet technology to treat nephelines to produce alumina. The Volkhov and Pikalevo in north-west Russia process the nepheline concentrates that are a by-product of apatite mining for phosphates in the Kola Peninsula, while the Achinsk refinery uses nephelines that are mined exclusively for processing into alumina.
However, even though the MoU did not commit the FSU to reducing capacity, a combination of shortages of foreign exchange to purchase raw materials and update plant equipment and rising transport costs means that Russian primary aluminium production rates are less than installed capacity, although by 2000 and 2001 the situation had much improved from the previous decade. 29 ALUMINIUM But even working at capacity, though, the Russian smelters are grossly inefficient and can never achieve the output rates of the 'state-of-the-art' western pre-bake smelters.