By Peter Westergaard

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In the foregoing instances human activity is assumed to affect the fortuitous character of various natural hazards in a positive way resulting in a greater probability of loss. It may, however, affect them in a negative way whereby chances of loss are reduced. Indeed, 7 See pp. 6 - 8 under heading "Natural Risks". 24 Agricultural Insurance all measures (mentioned in the previous chapter) which are designed to eliminate or reduce the probability of loss, protanto reduce the element of risk and so the fortuity involved.

In the foregoing instances human activity is assumed to affect the fortuitous character of various natural hazards in a positive way resulting in a greater probability of loss. It may, however, affect them in a negative way whereby chances of loss are reduced. Indeed, 7 See pp. 6 - 8 under heading "Natural Risks". 24 Agricultural Insurance all measures (mentioned in the previous chapter) which are designed to eliminate or reduce the probability of loss, protanto reduce the element of risk and so the fortuity involved.

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 22 Data not available ♦Counties arranged in the increasing order of annual average incidence. **Data represent average numberof hail days per year for months April-September inclusive. Source: Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, Norwich, England. 31 Actuarial Consideration of Agricultural Risks FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF HAIL IN THE UNITED STATES In the United States and Canada considerable studies have been made both in connection with the insurance of crops against hail and independently as to the frequency and intensity of hail storms in different parts of each county.

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