By Joao H. Bastos

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2003). Mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species in a resting cell. If antioxidant protection is inadequate this will result in oxidative stress and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. , 2007). , 2007). The common polymorphism consisting of a single 20 Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela nucleotide change in the region of the DNA encodes the signal sequence, such that the presence of either an alanine or a valine has been suggested; these would induce a conformational change from an α-helix to a β-sheet.

1. , 2007). In its active form it consists of two subunits, M and B, expressed by distinct genes. 3. By the combination of CKM and CKB subunits, three dimeric isoforms are formed, structuring in CK-MM, predominantly in skeletal muscle; CK-BB, predominantly in the brain; and CK-MB, predominantly in the myocardium. , 2007). Skeletal muscle contains almost entirely CK-MM, with small amounts of CK-MB. , 2007). , 2006). , 2007). Additionally, type I muscle fibers, predominantly recruited in endurance sports and recognized by the predominance of aerobic oxidative metabolism, present an inverse relationship with CK-MM activity.

2007). Moreover, hemolysis can occur as a result of mechanical trauma in the capillaries of runners’ feet 32 Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela (Carlson and Mawdsley, 1986), which would compromise performance still more in carriers of these variants. , 2011c). Hence, these results indicate that MTHFR polymorphisms should be better investigated in the context of performance and future CVD risk in athletes, particularly middle-aged athletes who exercise extensively, because besides the facts discussed above, CRP is present in atherosclerotic plaques, where it might exert several potential proinflammatory and atherogenic actions that include the binding of oxidized LDL cholesterol, induction of adhesion molecule expression, activation of complement, and stimulation of tissue factor production by monocytes (Brull et al.

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