By John Marshall

For complex undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in atmospheric, oceanic, and weather technology, surroundings, Ocean and weather Dynamics is an introductory textbook at the circulations of the ambience and ocean and their interplay, with an emphasis on worldwide scales. it is going to provide scholars an exceptional grab of what the ambience and oceans appear like at the large-scale and why they give the impression of being that approach. The function of the oceans in weather and paleoclimate is usually mentioned. the combo of observations, thought and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments units this article aside by means of making it available to scholars without past education in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical point that's attractive for undergraduates andbeginning graduate scholars* offers an invaluable academic device via a mixture of observations andlaboratory demonstrations that are considered over the net* includes directions on how one can reproduce the easy yet informativelaboratory experiments* comprises copious difficulties (with pattern solutions) to aid scholars study thematerial.

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The environment, however, has density ρE = ρ(z2 ) ρ1 + dρ dz δz, E where dρ/dz E is the environmental density gradient. The buoyancy of the parcel just depends on the difference between its density and that of its environment; using Eq. 4-3, we find that b= g ρ1 dρ dz δz. E The parcel will therefore be ⎫ positively ⎬ dρ neutrally buoyant if ⎭ dz negatively ⎧ ⎨ >0 =0 . E⎩ <0 (4-5) If the parcel is positively buoyant (the situation sketched in Fig. 4), it will keep on rising at an accelerating rate.

1 It is also one of the primary practical reasons to be interested in stratospheric behavior, since (as we saw in Chapter 2) ozone is the primary absorber of solar UV and thus shields life at the surface (including us) from the damaging effects of this radiation. The stratosphere, as its name suggests, is highly stratified and poorly mixed (stratus, meaning ‘‘layered’’), with long residence times for particles ejected into it (for example by volcanos) from the troposphere below. It is close to radiative equilibrium.

2. 3. 4. 4. 5. Problems We consider now the general problem of the radiative equilibrium temperature of the Earth. The Earth is bathed in solar radiation and absorbs much of that incident upon it. To maintain equilibrium it must warm up and radiate energy away at the same rate it is received, as depicted in Fig. 1. We will see that the emission temperature of the Earth is 255 K and that a body at this temperature radiates energy primarily in the infrared (IR). But the atmosphere is strongly absorbing at these wavelengths due to the presence of trace gases—principally the triatomic molecules H2 O and CO2 —which absorb and emit in the infrared, thus raising the surface temperature above that of the emission temperature, a mechanism that has become known as the greenhouse effect.

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