By Sushil K. Atreya

One of the main basic discoveries of the sunlight method used to be the detection of 4 moons in orbit round Jupiter through Galileo Galilei in 1610. the invention used to be major not just within the context of Jupiter; it gave credence to and was once instrumental in firmly constructing the heliocentric approach of Nicolaus Copernicus. nearly 4 centuries after Galileo's discovery, exten­ sive observations through the 2 Voyager spacecrafts have once more revolu­ tionized our considering the key planets, their composition, constitution, starting place, and evolution. This booklet is an try out at summarizing our current knowing of the atmospheres and ionospheres within the outer sun method, with specific emphasis at the appropriate physics and chemistry. i used to be motivat­ ed to organize this manuscript for the subsequent purposes. First, after less than­ going quick enlargement within the fresh earlier, the topic has eventually attained suf­ ficient adulthood to warrant a monograph of its personal. moment, i've got felt that because of fresh observations, new and tough difficulties have arisen whose solution calls for unconventional research and theoretical interpreta­ tion of current info, in addition to the gathering of recent sorts of information. i think the time is ripe to place those concerns within the applicable medical viewpoint, with the wish of stimulating novel theoretical, observational, and laboratory stories. i've got highlighted the numerous medical difficulties during the publication, specially on the finish of every chapter.

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18. 1b at Jupiter and 1 mb to 10 nb (nanobar) at Saturn - has not yet been probed. :. x. w o ~ 5 « OCC. 400 , ,,, , ,,, ,, 1 Ix10-7 Ix10- 6 I w 300 > ~ --l ~ 200 "- ..... 100 I ..... Ix10- 4 Ix10-3 IR + RADIO "- [He] x10- 4 109 Ix10- 5 IdO Id ' 10'2 NUMBER DENSITY (Cm- 3 ) Ix10-2 "- Id3 IxIO- 1 6x10- 1 Id6 Fig. 17. A model of the Jupiter atmosphere. Thermal structures obtained from the Voyager infrared, radio, and ultraviolet data are shown. Broken line interpolations in temperature and density represent the region of information gap.

The information for the upper atmosphere is limited to that available from a few successful occultation experiments. The results for the two atmospheric regions are discussed below. 1 Lower Atmosphere The infrared observations done from Pioneer as well as Voyager spacecraft have yielded the thermal structure of the lower stratosphere and the troposphere (Ingersoll et al. 1976; Orton and Ingersoll 1976; Hanel et al. 1979a, b, 1981a, 1982). Additional information was obtained from the Voyager radio refractivity data (Eshleman et al.

It is found that in the 150 - 2000 K range, the maximum absorption occurs around 960 A. Hence, from a statistical viewpoint the wavelength region 912 -1004 A is the most appropriate to use for determining H2 temperatures and densities. In the actual stimulation for comparison with the data, however, the temperature was allowed to vary along the line of sight, and additional wavelength regions (1041-1106 A, and 1106 -1189 A) were used. This analysis yields H2 density Temperature Measurements - Jupiter and Saturn N E 41 Fig.

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