By Claudio Tomasi, Sandro Fuzzi, Alexander Kokhanovsky
The publication describes the morphological, actual and chemical houses of aerosols from a variety of normal and anthropogenic resources to aid the reader greater comprehend the direct function of aerosol debris in scattering and soaking up brief- and long-wave radiation.
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Extra info for Atmospheric Aerosols: Life Cycles and Effects on Air Quality and Climate
More generally, bioaerosols often have quite complex shapes and variable internal structures. Therefore, it is very diﬃcult to simulate their optical characteristics, even using advanced computers. In addition, the refractive index of these particles needed for the theoretical modeling of their optical eﬀects is poorly known. Due to the fact that only left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars exist in nature, it is clear that the biological aerosols are mostly chiral. This implies that the refractive index depends on the sense of rotation of incident electromagnetic circularly polarized waves (Kokhanovsky, 2003).
On a global scale, SMIC (1971) estimated that forest ﬁres and slash-burning debris contributed to give a global annual average production ﬂux of aerosol particle mass varying from 3 to 150 Tg per year, with the fraction of forest ﬁre smoke particles with a < 20 μm that provides a value of Φe not exceeding 50 Tg per year (United Nations, 1979). Accordingly, ﬂux Φe including the whole smoke atmospheric load from forest ﬁres was estimated to range from 5 to 150 Tg per year by Jaenicke (1988). On the basis of most recent evaluations, it was estimated by the IPCC (2001) that about 54 Tg per year of carbonaceous aerosols with a < 2 μm is released into the atmosphere each year by natural biomass burning, of which 28 Tg per year in the northern hemisphere and 26 Tg per year in the southern hemisphere.
This is due to the fact that the surface microlayer of the ocean is enriched in microorganisms, viruses, and extracellular biogenic material, which can enter the atmosphere through such a bubble bursting mechanism. Consequently, sea-salt particles usually contain about 10% organic matter (OM) (Middlebrook, Murphy, and Thomson, 1998), but currently it is not well known whether these biogenic constituents are internally mixed with sea salt or whether they also form agglomerate pools of externally mixed organic particles (Bigg and Leck, 2008).