By Masaki Satoh

General stream versions (GCMs), which outline the elemental dynamics of atmospheric circulate, are these days utilized in a number of fields of atmospheric technology akin to climate forecasting, weather predictions and environmental estimations. the second one version of this popular paintings has been up-to-date to incorporate contemporary development of excessive solution worldwide modeling. It additionally comprises for the 1st time facets of high-resolution international non-hydrostatic types that the writer has been learning because the e-book of the 1st version. a few highlighted effects from the Non-hydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric version (NICAM) also are incorporated. the writer outlines the theoretical thoughts, easy versions and numerical tools for modeling the overall flow of the ambience. targeting the actual mechanisms accountable for the improvement of large-scale flow of the ambience, the e-book bargains entire insurance of a major and swiftly constructing approach utilized in the atmospheric technological know-how. Dynamic interpretations of the atmospheric constitution and their facets within the common move version are defined step by way of step.

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Example text

In general, we introduce various kinds of approximations and assumptions under the basic balances realized in the atmosphere. Thus, we consider the balances of atmospheric motions and their stabilities in Chapter 2, and various forms of approximated equation sets are introduced based on the basic balances in Chapter 3. These equation sets are used in the following chapters. The concepts of waves and instabilities are most essential for the description of atmospheric motions. The basic theories and properties of waves seen in the atmosphere are summarized in Chapter 4, and those of instabilities are summarized in Chapter 5.

Among the many good textbooks on fluid dynamics are Landau and Lifshitz (1987) and Batchelor (1967) for the foundations of fluid dynamics. For the empirical laws of the non-equilibrium system, such as the expression of the stress tensor and entropy production rate, see de Groot and Mazur (1984). There is another approach that uses Hamiltonian mechanics for the foundation of fluid dynamics. Hamiltonian fluid mechanics is reviewed by Shepherd (1990) and chapter 7 of Salmon (1998). Batchelor, G. , 1967: Fluid Dynamics.

In the case of the Earth, the gravity force has only a radial component in the approximate sense and the contribution of the right-hand side vanishes. Thus, the three components of angular momentum are conserved if stress flux at the boundary does not exist. For application to the Earth’s atmosphere, in practice, only the component parallel to the rotation axis is important for angular momentum. We define the axial component of angular momentum as lz , where z is the coordinate along the rotation axis in the direction toward the north pole.

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